Introduction:

A category to which a word is assigned in accordance with its syntactic functions.

In the English language, words can be considered as the smallest elements that have distinctive meanings. Based on their use and functions, words are categorized into several types or parts of speech.

There are eight basic parts of speech.

  1. Noun
  2. Pronoun
  3. Verb
  4. Adverb
  5. Adjective
  6. Preposition
  7. Conjunction
  8. Interjection

1. Noun

A noun is used as the name of a person, thing, place, idea and quality of a person, a thing and a place. A noun is essentially a label for places, things, events, ideas, concepts and so on. Like English, nouns in Spanish may be categorized as common or proper, count or mass, singular or plural.

Example:

Narendra Modi, Priyanka Chopra – persons

Mumbai, Madras – places

Peacock, lion, ant – creatures

Pen, knowledge –things

Types of nouns

Common Noun

Common nouns are used to name a GENERAL type of person, place or thing

Example: house, man, girl, city, country, …..

Proper Noun

Used to a Person or Place Specific name

Example: Ramesh, Suresh, Hyderabad,  cow, goat, lion, peacock, ……

Compound Noun

Compound nouns often have a meaning that is different, or more specific, than the two separate words. You have noticed that the compound noun can be written either as a single word, as a word with a hyphen, or as two words. There are no clear rules about this

Example: toothbrush, rainfall, sailboat, mother-in-law, well-being, alarm clock, credit card

Countable Noun

count noun (also countable noun) is a noun that can be modified by a numeral and that occurs in both singular and plural forms, and that co-occurs with quantificational determiners like every, each, several, etc.

Example, books, houses, Americans, cats, dogs, cars,.

Uncountable Noun

Uncountable nouns are substances, concepts etc that we cannot divide into separate elements. We cannot “count” them. For example, we cannot count “milk”. We can count “bottles of milk” or “litres of milk”, but we cannot count “milk” itself.

Example: Would, Milk, Air, Happiness,…

Abstract Noun

Your five physical senses cannot detect an abstract noun – you can’t see it, smell it, taste it, hear it, or touch it. In essence, an abstract noun is a quality, a concept, an idea, or maybe even an event. Abstract nouns and concrete nouns are usually defined in terms of one another

Example: love, time, happiness, bravery, creativity, justice, freedom.

2. Pronoun

Pronoun is a word used in place of a noun in order to avoid repetition of the latter.

pronoun is a word that replaces a noun in a sentence. Pronouns are used so that our language is not cumbersome with the same nouns being repeated over and over in a paragraph

Example: I, me, mine, myself, she, her, hers, herself, we, us, ours and ourselves.

Types of Pronouns

Possessive pronoun: mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs

Reflexive pronoun: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, oneself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves

Reciprocal pronoun: each other, one another

Relative pronoun: that, which, who, whose, whom, where, when

3. Verb

A Verb is a Word that is used to tell something about a person  or a thing as follows

a word used to describe an action, state, or occurrence, and forming the main part of the predicate of a sentence

A verb is one of the main parts of a sentence or question in English. In fact, you can’t have a sentence or a question without a verb! That’s how important these “action” parts of speech are. The verb signals an action, an occurrence, or a state of being.’

Example:

Sam and Eric ride the bus to school each morning.

Jan wants a horse for her birthday.

 Forms of main verbs
Root/ InfinitivePastPast participlePresent participleTo infinitive
KillkilledKilledkillingTo kill
RunRanRunRunningTo run
DriveDroveDrivenDrivingTo drive
Steal StoleStolen StealingTo steal

 

4. Adverb

Adverbs are used to give us more information and are used to modify verbs, clauses and other adverbs. The difficulty with identifying adverbs is that they can appear in different places in a sentence

An adverb is a word that modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb

An adverb is a Word used to add something to the meaning of a verb, adjective or another adverb. It is said to modify verbs, adjectives and adverbs

Example:

He writes slowly.       

Ravi is too lazy to do it.

She speaks very fast.

Types of Adverbs:

Adverb of Time: Before, ago, lately, yet, now, soon, yesterday, already, never.

Adverb of frequency:  Always, once, seldom, usually, rarely, etc.

Adverb of place: Here, everywhere, down, near, away, backward, upward

Adverb of manner: Slowly, so, soundly, delightfully.

Adverb of affirmation and negation: Certainly, apparently, obviously, undoubtedly.

5. Adjective

An Adjective is that it is a word that describes or clarifies a noun

Adjective is a work that tells us about or add to the meaning of a noun.

Examples:

She is Walking Slowly

She is very intelligent

He is a handsome boy.

She is beautiful.

I bought two books.

Types of Adjectives:

Adjectives of Quality: These show the kind/quality of the noun/pronoun.

These answer the question ‘of what kind? ”

Example: Mumbai is a large city.

Adjectives of Quantity: These show how much of a thing is meant.

Example: Take great care of your health

The whole amount was expended

Adjectives of Number: These show the number or order of the noun/pronoun.

Example: All men must die.

Sunday is the first day of the weak

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6. Preposition

preposition is a word such as after, in, to, on, and with. Prepositions are usually used in front of nouns or pronouns and they show the relationship between the noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence

proportion is two ratios that have been set equal to each other; a proportion is an equation that can be solved. When I say that a proportion is two ratios that are equal to each other, I mean this in the sense of two fractions being equal to each other

The Word Preposition is a work or a group of words that is placed before a noun or pronoun to indicate direction, method, place, source etc. In other words, the noun or pronoun is shown to have a kind of relation with regard to something else with the help of a preposition

Example: At, in, on, of, off, through, below, with,…

There is a cow in the field

The book is on the table

Sheena was in the kitchen

Kinds of Prepositions

  1. Simple Prepositions: at, by, for, from, in, of, off, on, through, till, to, up, down, with.
  2. Compound Prepositions: about, above, across, along, amidst, among, amongst,

around, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, inside, outside, within,

without. Upon,

  1. Phrase Prepositions: A group of words which act as a single preposition
according toin accordance within place of
agreeably toin addition toin reference to
along withon behalf ofin regard to
away fromin case ofin spite of
because ofin comparison toin stead of
by dint ofin compliance within the event of
by means ofin consequence ofon account of
by reason ofin course ofowing to
by virtue ofin favour ofwith a view to
by way ofin front ofwith an eye to
in lieu ofwith reference to
For the sake ofin order towith regard to

 4. Participial Prepositions:

barring                 –  (excepting, apart from)             pending                  –   (until)

regarding             –   (about, concerning)                   notwithstanding  –      (in spite of)

respecting            –   (with respect to, concerning)     during                    –   (at the time of)

touching              –   (with regard to)                          concerning            –   (about)

considering          –  (taking into account)                  given                     –   (considering)

 7. Conjunction

Conjunction is the glue that holds words, phrases and clauses (both dependent and independent) together

Conjunction (also called a connective) is a word such as and, because, but, for, if, or, and when. Conjunctions are used to connect phrases, clauses, and sentences.

Types of Conjunctions:

Coordinating Conjunctions: These join together clauses of equal rank.

Example: and, or, else, otherwise, but, yet, still, however, for, so, therefore .

Example: They are poor but happy

 

Subordinating Conjunctions:  These join a clause to another clause on which it    depends for its full meaning.

Example: after, before, because, as, since, if, provided, unless, though, although, even though, till, until, that,

Example: Though they are poor, they are happy

 

Correlative Conjunctions: These always come together

Either – or, neither –nor, not only(merely) -but also, both-and, whether  -or, so- that’

lest  – should,  no sooner – than, hardly/scarcely/barely – when/before

Example: No sooner had she finished her studies than she got a job

Hardly did he see me when he called me

Neither he nor I am ready to do it

 8. Interjection

Interjections are words used to express strong feeling or sudden emotion. They are included in a sentence (usually at the start) to express a sentiment such as surprise, disgust, joy, excitement, or enthusiasm. An interjection is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence.

The list of interjections used in English is extremely long, just as the list of adjectives or adverbs would be. Almost any word or phrase can be used as an interjection, if it is inserted into a sentence to convey emotion.

  1. Joy : Hurrah! huzza!
  2. Grief : alas!
  3. Surprise : ha! what!
  4. Approval : bravo!
Example:

Hurrah! we have won the match.

Alas! she is dead.

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