A category to which a word is assigned in accordance with its syntactic functions.
In the English language, words can be considered as the smallest elements that have distinctive meanings. Based on their use and functions, words are categorized into several types or parts of speech.
There are eight basic parts of speech.
A noun is used as the name of a person, thing, place, idea and quality of a person, a thing and a place. A noun is essentially a label for places, things, events, ideas, concepts and so on. Like English, nouns in Spanish may be categorized as common or proper, count or mass, singular or plural.
Narendra Modi, Priyanka Chopra – persons
Mumbai, Madras – places
Peacock, lion, ant – creatures
Pen, knowledge –things
Types of nouns
Common nouns are used to name a GENERAL type of person, place or thing
Example: house, man, girl, city, country, …..
Used to a Person or Place Specific name
Example: Ramesh, Suresh, Hyderabad, cow, goat, lion, peacock, ……
Compound nouns often have a meaning that is different, or more specific, than the two separate words. You have noticed that the compound noun can be written either as a single word, as a word with a hyphen, or as two words. There are no clear rules about this
Example: toothbrush, rainfall, sailboat, mother-in-law, well-being, alarm clock, credit card
A count noun (also countable noun) is a noun that can be modified by a numeral and that occurs in both singular and plural forms, and that co-occurs with quantificational determiners like every, each, several, etc.
Example, books, houses, Americans, cats, dogs, cars,.
Uncountable nouns are substances, concepts etc that we cannot divide into separate elements. We cannot “count” them. For example, we cannot count “milk”. We can count “bottles of milk” or “litres of milk”, but we cannot count “milk” itself.
Example: Would, Milk, Air, Happiness,…
Your five physical senses cannot detect an abstract noun – you can’t see it, smell it, taste it, hear it, or touch it. In essence, an abstract noun is a quality, a concept, an idea, or maybe even an event. Abstract nouns and concrete nouns are usually defined in terms of one another
Example: love, time, happiness, bravery, creativity, justice, freedom.
Pronoun is a word used in place of a noun in order to avoid repetition of the latter.
A pronoun is a word that replaces a noun in a sentence. Pronouns are used so that our language is not cumbersome with the same nouns being repeated over and over in a paragraph
Example: I, me, mine, myself, she, her, hers, herself, we, us, ours and ourselves.
Types of Pronouns
Possessive pronoun: mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs
Reflexive pronoun: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, oneself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves
Reciprocal pronoun: each other, one another
Relative pronoun: that, which, who, whose, whom, where, when
A Verb is a Word that is used to tell something about a person or a thing as follows
a word used to describe an action, state, or occurrence, and forming the main part of the predicate of a sentence
A verb is one of the main parts of a sentence or question in English. In fact, you can’t have a sentence or a question without a verb! That’s how important these “action” parts of speech are. The verb signals an action, an occurrence, or a state of being.’
Sam and Eric ride the bus to school each morning.
Jan wants a horse for her birthday.
Forms of main verbs
|Root/ Infinitive||Past||Past participle||Present participle||To infinitive|
Adverbs are used to give us more information and are used to modify verbs, clauses and other adverbs. The difficulty with identifying adverbs is that they can appear in different places in a sentence
An adverb is a word that modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb
An adverb is a Word used to add something to the meaning of a verb, adjective or another adverb. It is said to modify verbs, adjectives and adverbs
He writes slowly.
Ravi is too lazy to do it.
She speaks very fast.
Types of Adverbs:
Adverb of Time: Before, ago, lately, yet, now, soon, yesterday, already, never.
Adverb of frequency: Always, once, seldom, usually, rarely, etc.
Adverb of place: Here, everywhere, down, near, away, backward, upward
Adverb of manner: Slowly, so, soundly, delightfully.
Adverb of affirmation and negation: Certainly, apparently, obviously, undoubtedly.
An Adjective is that it is a word that describes or clarifies a noun
Adjective is a work that tells us about or add to the meaning of a noun.
She is Walking Slowly
She is very intelligent
He is a handsome boy.
She is beautiful.
I bought two books.
Types of Adjectives:
Adjectives of Quality: These show the kind/quality of the noun/pronoun.
These answer the question ‘of what kind? ”
Example: Mumbai is a large city.
Adjectives of Quantity: These show how much of a thing is meant.
Example: Take great care of your health
The whole amount was expended
Adjectives of Number: These show the number or order of the noun/pronoun.
Example: All men must die.
Sunday is the first day of the weak
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A preposition is a word such as after, in, to, on, and with. Prepositions are usually used in front of nouns or pronouns and they show the relationship between the noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence
A proportion is two ratios that have been set equal to each other; a proportion is an equation that can be solved. When I say that a proportion is two ratios that are equal to each other, I mean this in the sense of two fractions being equal to each other
The Word Preposition is a work or a group of words that is placed before a noun or pronoun to indicate direction, method, place, source etc. In other words, the noun or pronoun is shown to have a kind of relation with regard to something else with the help of a preposition
Example: At, in, on, of, off, through, below, with,…
There is a cow in the field
The book is on the table
Sheena was in the kitchen
Kinds of Prepositions
- Simple Prepositions: at, by, for, from, in, of, off, on, through, till, to, up, down, with.
- Compound Prepositions: about, above, across, along, amidst, among, amongst,
around, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, inside, outside, within,
- Phrase Prepositions: A group of words which act as a single preposition
|according to||in accordance with||in place of|
|agreeably to||in addition to||in reference to|
|along with||on behalf of||in regard to|
|away from||in case of||in spite of|
|because of||in comparison to||in stead of|
|by dint of||in compliance with||in the event of|
|by means of||in consequence of||on account of|
|by reason of||in course of||owing to|
|by virtue of||in favour of||with a view to|
|by way of||in front of||with an eye to|
|in lieu of||with reference to|
|For the sake of||in order to||with regard to|
4. Participial Prepositions:
barring – (excepting, apart from) pending – (until)
regarding – (about, concerning) notwithstanding – (in spite of)
respecting – (with respect to, concerning) during – (at the time of)
touching – (with regard to) concerning – (about)
considering – (taking into account) given – (considering)
A Conjunction is the glue that holds words, phrases and clauses (both dependent and independent) together
A Conjunction (also called a connective) is a word such as and, because, but, for, if, or, and when. Conjunctions are used to connect phrases, clauses, and sentences.
Types of Conjunctions:
Coordinating Conjunctions: These join together clauses of equal rank.
Example: and, or, else, otherwise, but, yet, still, however, for, so, therefore .
Example: They are poor but happy
Subordinating Conjunctions: These join a clause to another clause on which it depends for its full meaning.
Example: after, before, because, as, since, if, provided, unless, though, although, even though, till, until, that,
Example: Though they are poor, they are happy
Correlative Conjunctions: These always come together
Either – or, neither –nor, not only(merely) -but also, both-and, whether -or, so- that’
lest – should, no sooner – than, hardly/scarcely/barely – when/before
Example: No sooner had she finished her studies than she got a job
Hardly did he see me when he called me
Neither he nor I am ready to do it
Interjections are words used to express strong feeling or sudden emotion. They are included in a sentence (usually at the start) to express a sentiment such as surprise, disgust, joy, excitement, or enthusiasm. An interjection is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence.
The list of interjections used in English is extremely long, just as the list of adjectives or adverbs would be. Almost any word or phrase can be used as an interjection, if it is inserted into a sentence to convey emotion.
- Joy : Hurrah! huzza!
- Grief : alas!
- Surprise : ha! what!
- Approval : bravo!
Hurrah! we have won the match.
Alas! she is dead.