- Direct Speech
Quoting the exact words of the speaker is called “The Direct Speech”. David said, “I am writing a letter now”.
- Indirect Speech
Reporting of what a speaker said without quoting his exact words is called ‘Indirect speech’. David said that he was writing a letter then.
Direct Speech – Indirect Speech
now – then
here – there
here after – there after
this – that
these – those
ago – before
thus – so
to-day – that day
to-night – that night
last night – the previous night
yesterday – the day before (or) the previous day
tomorrow – the next day (or) the following day
last week – the week before (or) the previous week
next week – the week after (or) the following week
last month – the month before (or) the previous month
next month – a month after
hither – thither
hence – thence
Scroll down for more information_
If the reporting verb is in the Present or Future tense (e.g., say, will say) there is no change in the tense of the verb in the Indirect speech.
Antony says, “I eat a mango”. (D.S.)
Antony says, that he eats a mango”. (I.S.)
If reporting verb is in the Past Tense. the tense of the verbs in the reported speech or Indirect Speech must be generally changed.
- Present Tense in the Direct becomes past tense.
Johnsi said, “I write a letter”. (D.S)
Johnsi said that she wrote a letter. (I.S)
- Past Tense in the direct becomes past perfect or remains unchanged.
Angel said, “I brought a pen yesterday”. (D.S)
Angel said that she had bought a pen the day before. (I.S)