The Union Judiciary (124-147):

An independent and impartial judiciary is an essential pre-requisite of a federal form of government. It is also part of basic structure of our Constitution.

Our constitution provides for a single unified system of courts throughout the country. In India, we have Supreme Court at Delhi as the apex court, the High Court for each State or group of States and subordinate courts which are under the superintendence of the respective High Court.

Supreme Court (Article-124):

Supreme Court is the guardian of Indian Constitution and is the final interpreter of the Constitution of India.

It is also the highest court of appeal in Civil and Criminal matters.

It consists of Chief Justice and 30 other Judge. Justice H.J. Kania was the first Chief Justice of India.

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Judges of Supreme Court:

AppointmentThey are appointed by the President of India.
Qualificationa)   He must be a citizen of India

b)   Has been Judge of a High Court at least for five years; or

c)   Has been an Advocate of High Court for at least ten years; or

d)   In the opinion of the President, a distinguished jurist

Term of office¨   A judge of the Supreme Court holds office until he attains the age of 65 years.
  • He can be removed from his office by an order of the president, only on the grounds of proved misbehavior or incapacity.
  • The president passes such order only after it is addressed to both the Houses of Parliament. This address must be supported by majority of the total membership of the house and also by majority of not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting.
  • Such tedious procedure was carved out to ensure of tenure for the judges which would help in maintaining the independence of Judiciary.
ResignationHe can resign from office by writing to the President of India.



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