These rights are fundamental because they are considered essential for attainment of intellectual, moral and spiritual status in life by any individual. Fundamental Rights as provided under Indian Constitution are enforceable by the Supreme Court and High Courts and cannot be abridged by any law or executive action.
The Six fundamental rights recognized by the Indian constitution are:
1. Right to equality: This includes equality before law, prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, gender or place of birth, and equality of opportunity in matters of employment, abolition of untouchability and abolition of titles. Right to equality is provided from Article 14 to Article 18 of Indian constitution.
2. Right to freedom: This includes freedom of speech and expression, assembly, association or union or cooperatives, movement, residence, and right to practice any profession or occupation, right to life and liberty, protection in respect to conviction in offences and protection against arrest and detention in certain cases. Right to freedom is provided from Article 19 to 22 of constitution.
3. Right against exploitation: This prohibits all forms of forced labour, child labour and traffic of human beings. It is provided under Articles 23 and 24 of Indian constitution.
4. Right to freedom of religion: Which includes freedom of conscience and free profession, practice, and propagation of religion, freedom to manage religious affairs, freedom from certain taxes and freedom from religious instructions in certain educational institutes? Article 25 to 28 enumerates the right to freedom of religion.
5. Cultural and Educational rights: Preserve the right of any section of citizens to conserve their culture, language or script, and right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice. Article 29 and Article 30 of Indian constitution provides for cultural and educational rights.
6. Right to constitutional remedies: This is present for enforcement of Fundamental Rights. It is provided under Article 32 to 35 of Indian constitution.
Fundamental rights for Indians have also been aimed at overturning the inequalities of pre-independence social practices. Specifically, they have also been used to abolish untouchability and thus prohibit discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth. They also forbid trafficking of human beings and forced labour(a crime).